Ammonia and ammonium should be rapidly converted by aerobic nitrification into nitrite and then nitrate and finally into nitrogen gas. If this does not happen then either the aquarium is not fully matured or there is a problem with the tank`s biological system, which can be caused by an excessive biological loading being placed on the system.
The Salifert Ammonia Test Ki..
Calcium is a major constituent of coralline algae, the skeletal material of hard corals and the skeletal needles of soft/leather corals. In many cases too low a calcium concentration retards coral and coralline algae growth.
Calcium also fulfills many important biological functions.
In a healthy aquarium, the growth and multiplication of corals, calcareous algae and ..
Copper is often used as a treatment for parasite infested fish and it is essential that the correct concentration is used as too high levels can be toxic to marine fish and invertebrates.
Tap water can also be naturally high in copper and it is therefore advisable to test for this on a regular basis.
The Salifert test kit offers a very sensitive and accurate test..
Iodine is present in natural sea water in a very low concentration (0.6 mg/L or 0.06 PPM) and this iodine occurs as several different species including iodide, iodate, molecular iodine and hypoiodite.
There is a misconception among many hobbyists that iodide predominates in natural sea water but in fact, it is iodate which is the predominant element.
Test kits which ..
Calcium is not the only substance needed to form the skeletal material of corals and allow calcareous algae to grow. Carbonate and bicarbonate are also needed and these two substances can have a major effect on stabilizing or buffering pH levels in the aquarium in the correct range of 8.1 to 8.4.
The total carbonate and bicarbonate concentration is also called alkalinity..
Magnesium is present in natural sea water in a fairly high concentration (1350 - 1500 mg/L) and is an essential element of chlorophyll which is necessary for photosynthesis. Without photosynthesis plants, algae and coral would not be able to survive.
Magnesium also helps to maintain the correct combination of calcium concentration and alkalinity as it slows down the form..
When there are insufficient areas of a tank which are deprived of oxygen (anaerobic zones) or denitrification is not taking place properly, nitrate will build up. This can also happen in an aquarium where the biological loading on the system is causing an imbalance e.g. if there is excessive livestock for the aquarium volume or over feeding is occurring.
The build up of ..
In a properly cycled aquarium, nitrite is converted to nitrate and then, if there are areas deprived of oxygen such as in live rock and other filter materials, this nitrate is converted back to nitrite and then transformed into harmless nitrogen gas.
If this cycle breaks down then nitrites, which are extremely toxic to fish and invertebrates, can form in high concentrati..
The pH value in a marine tank has a major impact on the growth of corals and calcareous algae and on many biological processes. The pH should not be allowed to fluctuate more than approx. 0.2 units during any 24 hour period and should preferably be kept above 8.2.
If the pH is too low then the cause may be a too low alkalinity and/or a build up of carbon dioxide caused b..
If phosphate is present in too high a concentration there may be an increase in growth of undesirable algae and if the phosphate level is higher than 0.04 mg/L the growth rate of corals and calcareous algae may decrease by as much as 90%.
Washing fish food (a rich source of phosphates) after thawing can significantly reduce the input of phosphate, and using a high grade,..
Silicate occurs in tap water or purified water when the reverse osmosis or de ionizing unit is not functioning properly.
Silicate can result in diatom bloom and can block some essential trace elements such as vanadium and molybdenum.
The Salifert Test kit for silicate is a very fast, sensitive and accurate test, with two scales: an ultra low scale which is particular..
In a marine aquarium strontium plays an important role in accelerating the growth of coral and calcareous algae and natural sea water contains approx. 7 - 9 mg/L strontium.
Strontium is very difficult to test for, but if there is found to be a depletion of calcium in the aquarium then strontium levels are likely to be very low as well.
It is advisable to maintain a s..